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2009 年 08 月 16 日技术合集

针对中小型网站(3000人左右/15分钟)的服务器架构

本文涉及的服务器构架主要针对3000人左右/15分钟的中小型网站, 多见于discuz!论坛构建的社区等等
环境为linux(内核2.6+), nginx, php(fastcgi), mysql 等高效开源软件构成, 成本低廉, 是普通个人站长朋友的首选,
但是针对部分企业, 这个方案也是一个非常不错的选择!

至于nginx和apache等web服务器的性能比较这里就不多说了

本文是以实例的方式来描述安装以及配置等情况, 供各位参考
1. 硬件环境
一台web服务器, 一台db服务器, 没有raid
web服务器 至强双核1.60GHz, 2G, 73GSCSI*2
db服务器 至强双核1.60GHz, 2G, 73GSCSI*2

2. 系统环境
CentOS 5.x (内核2.6+)
简单的说下前期工作:安装系统尽可能的精简, 检查系统时间, dmesg看看有无错误, 关闭selinux,ipv6, 升级系统到最新yum -y update
安装如下web环境必要的软件包:
# yum install -y ntp vim-enhanced gcc gcc-c++ gcc-g77 flex bison autoconf automake bzip2-devel ncurses-devel libjpeg-devel libpng-devel libtiff-devel freetype-devel pam-devel kernel

3. 准备软件
nginx-0.6.31.tar.gz
pcre-7.3.tar.gz
php-5.2.6.tar.bz2
eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
ZendOptimizer-3.3.0-linux-glibc21-i386.tar.gz
lighttpd-1.4.19.tar.bz2
libxml2-2.6.30.tar.gz
libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2
gd-2.0.34.tar.gz
mysql-5.0.51a-linux-i686-glibc23.tar.gz

以上软件都是目前最新最稳定的版本, 查找和下载以上软件或者更新版本
请在www.google.com输入: 软件全名 intitle:index
一般头几个都是可以下载的, 找个最快的就可以了

<!—————以下都是web服务器上的配置—————>

4.开始安装环境:
(1)安装gd库
# tar zxvf gd-2.0.34.tar.gz
# cd gd-2.0.34
# ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/gd2
# make
# make install
(2)安装LibXML2
# tar zxvf libxml2-2.6.30.tar.gz
# cd libxml2-2.6.30
# ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/libxml2
# make
# make install

(3)安装LibMcrypt
# cd /usr/local/src
# tar jxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2
# cd libmcrypt-2.5.8
# ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/libmcrypt
# make
# make install

(4)解压mysql-5.0.51a-linux-i686-glibc23.tar.gz, 然后把解开的包里的lib和include目录转移到任意目录, 例如/usr/local/mysql
因为编译php5需要用到mysql的支持(–with-mysql)
# tar zxvf mysql-5.0.51a-linux-i686-glibc23.tar.gz
# cd mysql-5.0.51a-linux-i686-glibc23
# mkdir -p /user/local/mysql
# mv ./lib ./include /user/local/mysql/

(5)编译php(fastcfi模式)
# ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/php-fcgi –enable-fastcgi –enable-discard-path –enable-force-cgi-redirect –with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php-fcgi/etc –enable-zend-multibyte –with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql –with-libxml-dir=/usr/local/libxml2 –with-gd=/usr/local/gd2 –with-jpeg-dir –with-png-dir –with-bz2 –with-freetype-dir –with-iconv-dir –with-zlib-dir –with-mcrypt=/usr/local/libmcrypt –enable-sysvsem –enable-inline-optimization –enable-soap –enable-gd-native-ttf –enable-ftp –enable-mbstring –enable-exif –disable-debug –disable-ipv6
# make
# make install
# cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php-fcgi/etc/php.ini

(6)安装ZendOptimizer
# tar zxvf ZendOptimizer-3.3.0-linux-glibc21-i386.tar.gz
# cd ZendOptimizer-3.3.0-linux-glibc21-i386
# ./install
基本上是一直回车, 值得注意一点的是:
当您看到要选择php的路径时就写:
/usr/local/php-fcgi/etc
看到Are you using Apache Web server?
这里要选NO

(7)安装eaccelerator
# tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
# cd eaccelerator-0.9.5.3
# ./configure –enable-eaccelerator=shared –with-php-config=/usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/php-config
# make
# make install
# mkdir /tmp/eaccelerator && chmod 777 /tmp/eaccelerator && touch /var/log/eaccelerator_log
编辑php.ini
# vi /usr/local/php-fcgi/etc/php.ini
在最底部加上:
extension=/usr/local/php-fcgi/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so
eaccelerator.shm_size=”16″
eaccelerator.cache_dir=”/tmp/eaccelerator”
eaccelerator.enable=”1″
eaccelerator.optimizer=”1″
eaccelerator.check_mtime=”1″
eaccelerator.debug=”0″
eaccelerator.log_file = “/var/log/eaccelerator_log”
eaccelerator.filter=””
eaccelerator.shm_max=”0″
eaccelerator.shm_ttl=”0″
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period=”0″
eaccelerator.shm_only=”0″
eaccelerator.compress=”1″
eaccelerator.compress_level=”9″

(8)安装nginx的rewrite模块需要pcre库
# tar zxvf pcre-7.3.tar.gz
# cd pcre-7.3
# ./configure
# make && make install

(9)安装nginx
# ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/nginx/ –with-http_stub_status_module
# make && make install

(10)编译出lighttpd中附带的spawn-fcgi,它的作用是来启动php-cgi
# tar jxvf lighttpd-1.4.19.tar.bz2
# cd lighttpd-1.4.19
# ./configure
# make
# cp src/spawn-fcgi /usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/

到现在为之, 安装过程已经结束

5.开始配置环境:
# cd /usr/local/nginx/conf
# mkdir vhosts
先备份即将要修改的文件
# cp nginx.conf nginx.conf.bak
# cp fastcgi_params fastcgi_params.bak
# mkdir -p /usr/local/nginx/temp/client_body
# mkdir /usr/local/nginx/var

(1)编辑nginx主配置文件nginx.conf
编辑nginx.conf, 并且把其内容修改为, 最后几行注意自定义一下
daemon on;
worker_processes 4;
worker_cpu_affinity 0001 0010 0100 1000;
error_log /dev/null;
pid var/nginx.pid;
lock_file var/nginx.lock;
events {
worker_connections 2048;
use epoll;
multi_accept on;
}
http {
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;
server_names_hash_max_size 512;
server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
sendfile on;
tcp_nopush on;
tcp_nodelay on;
keepalive_timeout 1;
client_header_timeout 10;
client_body_timeout 10;
client_max_body_size 10m;
client_body_buffer_size 256k;
send_timeout 30;
client_header_buffer_size 1k;
large_client_header_buffers 4 4k;
client_body_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/temp/client_body 1 2;
gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1000;
gzip_buffers 4 8k;
gzip_http_version 1.1;
gzip_comp_level 1;
gzip_types text/plain text/css application/x-javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;
log_format main ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] $request ‘
‘”$status” $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘
‘”$http_user_agent” “$http_x_forwarded_for”‘;
access_log /dev/null;
# 引用你即将要放置的虚拟主机配置文件
include vhosts/hao32.com;
include vhosts/linuxsense.org;
}

(2)编辑php在fastcgi模式下的配置文件:
# vi fastcgi_params
内容修改为:
fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;

fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_URI $request_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_URI $document_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $document_root;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param SERVER_SOFTWARE nginx/$nginx_version;

fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param REMOTE_PORT $remote_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_ADDR $server_addr;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with –enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param REDIRECT_STATUS 200;

(2)编辑虚拟主机的配置文件
# cd vhosts/
# vi hao32.com
添加内容如下
server {
listen 80;
server_name hao32.com www.hao32.com;
# 可以选择打开日志
#access_log /var/log/hao32.com/access.log combined buffer=32k;
#error_log /var/log/hao32.com/error.log warn;

location / {
index index.html index.htm index.php;
root /www/wwwroot/hao32.com;

location ~ \.php$ {
include fastcgi_params;
fastcgi_index index.php;
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:8407;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /www/wwwroot/hao32.com$fastcgi_script_name;
}

location /hao32-status {
stub_status on;
access_log off;
}
}

# vi linuxsense.org
添加内容如下, 这是一个带有discuz!默认rewrite规则的主机事例
server {
listen 80;
server_name linuxsense.org www.linuxsense.org;
# 可以选择打开日志
#access_log /var/log/linuxsense.org/access.log combined buffer=32k;
#error_log /var/log/linuxsense.org/error.log warn;
location / {
index index.html index.htm index.php;
root /www/wwwroot/linuxsense.org;
rewrite ^(.*)/archiver/((fid|tid)-[\w\-]+\.html)$ $1/archiver/index.php?$2 last;
rewrite ^(.*)/forum-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ $1/forumdisplay.php?fid=$2&page=$3 last;
rewrite ^(.*)/thread-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ $1/viewthread.php?tid=$2&extra=page\%3D$4&page=$3 last;
rewrite ^(.*)/profile-(username|uid)-(.+)\.html$ $1/viewpro.php?$2=$3 last;
rewrite ^(.*)/space-(username|uid)-(.+)\.html$ $1/space.php?$2=$3 last;
rewrite ^(.*)/tag-(.+)\.html$ $1/tag.php?name=$2 last;
location ~ \.php$ {
include fastcgi_params;
fastcgi_index index.php;
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:8408;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /www/wwwroot/linuxsense.org$fastcgi_script_name;
}

location /linuxsense-status {
stub_status on;
access_log off;
}
}

(3)增加网站用户
useradd hao32 -d /www/wwwroot/hao32.com -s /sbin/nologin
useradd linuxsense -d /www/wwwroot/linuxsense.org -s /sbin/nologin
如果参数-d后的路径本身就存在, 会提示
useradd: warning: the home directory already exists.
Not copying any file from skel directory into it.
这并不影响,
chown -R hao32:hao32 /www/wwwroot/hao32.com
chown -R linuxsense:linuxsense /www/wwwroot/linuxsense

(5)创建一个要等会要使用的用户列表USER_LIST
# vi /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts/USER_LIST
格式如下
去掉-a -p -C -u -f等参数, 分表是本机php要使用的ip地址, 端口, 用户
注意, 如果有两个用户就要两行, 主要不要有空白行

-a 127.0.0.1 -p 8407 -C 20 -u hao32 -f
-a 127.0.0.1 -p 8408 -C 200 -u linuxsense -f

(6)制作php-cgi,nginx等启动脚本, 并加入系统服务

# vi /etc/init.d/php-cgi
# chmod 755 /etc/init.d/php-cgi
编辑php-cgi启动脚本, 加入以下代码:
#!/bin/bash
#
# PHP-FastCGI Control Script for Red Hat based Linux.
# Written by hao32
# chkconfig: 3 89 89
# description: PHP Fast-CGI

# PHP Users Settings
USER_INFO=”/usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts/USER_LIST”

# Source Function Library
. /etc/init.d/functions

PHP_SPAWN=”/usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/spawn-fcgi”
PHP_SBIN=”/usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/php-cgi”
PHP_PID=”/usr/local/nginx/var/php-fcgi.pid”

RETVAL=0
prog=”PHP FastCGI”

mkdir -p /var/run/php-fcgi 2> /dev/null

start() {
echo -n $”Starting $prog: ”
cat $USER_INFO | while read list
do
daemon $PHP_SPAWN $list $PHP_SBIN
done
RETVAL=$?
if [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]
then
touch /var/lock/subsys/php-fcgi
fi
echo
return $RETVAL
}

stop() {
echo -n $”Stopping $prog: ”
killproc php-cgi
RETVAL=$?
if [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]
then
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/php-fcgi
fi
echo
return $RETVAL
}

restart() {
stop
echo -ne “Restart…\n”
sleep 3
start
}

case “$1″ in
start)
start
;;
stop)
stop
;;
restart)
restart
;;
*)
echo $”Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart}”
RETVAL=1
esac

exit $RETVAL

# vi /etc/init.d/nginx
# chmod 755 /etc/init.d/nginx
编辑nginx启动脚本, 加入以下代码
#!/bin/bash
#
# Nginx Control Script for Red Hat based Linux.
# chkconfig: 3 90 90
# description: Nginx Web Server Control

# Source Function Library
. /etc/init.d/functions

# Nginx Settings
NGINX_SBIN=”/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx”
NGINX_CONF=”/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf”
NGINX_PID=”/usr/local/nginx/var/nginx.pid”

RETVAL=0
prog=”nginx”

mkdir -p /var/run/nginx 2> /dev/null

start() {
echo -n $”Starting $prog: ”
daemon $NGINX_SBIN -c $NGINX_CONF
RETVAL=$?
if [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]
then
touch /var/lock/subsys/nginx
fi
echo
return $RETVAL
}

stop() {
echo -n $”Stopping $prog: ”
killproc -p $NGINX_PID $NGINX_SBIN -TERM
RETVAL=$?
if [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]
then
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/nginx
fi
echo
return $RETVAL
}

reload() {
echo -n $”Reloading $prog: ”
killproc -p $NGINX_PID $NGINX_SBIN -HUP
RETVAL=$?
echo
return $RETVAL
}

restart() {
stop
start
}

configtest() {
$NGINX_SBIN -c $NGINX_CONF -t
exit
}

case “$1″ in
start)
start
;;
stop)
stop
;;
reload)
reload
;;
restart)
restart
;;
configtest)
configtest
;;
*)
echo $”Usage: $0 {start|stop|reload|restart|configtest}”
RETVAL=1
esac

exit $RETVAL

增加到系统服务器
chkconfig –add nginx
chkconfig –add php-cgi

现在可以启动php-cgi和nginx了

service nginx start
service php-cgi start

重启动使用restart
<!—————以上都是web服务器上的配置—————>

<!—————以下都是db服务器上的配置—————>
开始安装配置mysql
# tar zxvf mysql-5.0.51a-linux-i686-glibc23.tar.gz
# mv mysql-5.0.51a-linux-i686-glibc23 /usr/local/
# ln -s /usr/local/mysql-5.0.51a-linux-i686-glibc23 /usr/local/mysql
# useradd mysql
# chown -R mysql:root /usr/local/mysql/
# cd /usr/local/mysql
# ./scripts/mysql_install_db –user=mysql
# cp ./support-files/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
# chmod 755 /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
# chkconfig –add mysqld
# chkconfig –level 3 mysqld on
# cp ./support-files/my-huge.cnf /etc/my.cnf
# mv /usr/local/mysql/data /var/lib/mysql
# chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql
# cd /usr/local/mysql/bin
# for i in *; do ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/$i /usr/bin/$i; done
编辑/etc/my.cnf
内容为:
[client]
port = 3306
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
[mysqld]
port = 3306
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
max_connections = 1024
# max_user_connections = 40
skip-innodb
#skip-network
#skip-bdb
datadir = /var/lib/mysql
default-character-set=utf8
long_query_time = 5
log-slow-queries = /var/lib/mysql/slow_queries
wait_timeout = 5
thread_stack=128K
interactive_timeout = 20
skip-locking
key_buffer = 256M
max_allowed_packet = 2M
table_cache = 512
sort_buffer_size = 2M
read_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 8M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 64M
thread_cache_size = 8
query_cache_size = 32M
# Try number of CPU’s*2 for thread_concurrency
thread_concurrency = 8
log-bin=mysql-bin
server-id = 1
[mysql]
default-character-set=utf8

在本机上登陆mysql
# mysql -uroot
mysql>

输入一下内(可以复制粘贴啊), 增加一个可以远程连接的用户, 本例用户是hao32, 密码是:hao32.com
然后在web服务器上使用诸如phpmyadmin等软件连接上本台db服务器, 删增相应的用户
Insert INTO `mysql`.`user` (
`Host` ,
`User` ,
`Password` ,
`Select_priv` ,
`Insert_priv` ,
`Update_priv` ,
`Delete_priv` ,
`Create_priv` ,
`Drop_priv` ,
`Reload_priv` ,
`Shutdown_priv` ,
`Process_priv` ,
`File_priv` ,
`Grant_priv` ,
`References_priv` ,
`Index_priv` ,
`Alter_priv` ,
`Show_db_priv` ,
`Super_priv` ,
`Create_tmp_table_priv` ,
`Lock_tables_priv` ,
`Execute_priv` ,
`Repl_slave_priv` ,
`Repl_client_priv` ,
`Create_view_priv` ,
`Show_view_priv` ,
`Create_routine_priv` ,
`Alter_routine_priv` ,
`Create_user_priv` ,
`ssl_type` ,
`max_questions` ,
`max_updates` ,
`max_connections` ,
`max_user_connections`
)
VALUES (
‘%’, ‘hao32’, PASSWORD( ‘hao32.com’ ) , ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ‘Y’, ”, ‘0’, ‘0’, ‘0’, ‘0’
);
<!—————以上都是db服务器上的配置—————>

完毕!来自: www.hao32.com

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